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NATIONAL REGISTER EVALUATION CRITERIA

ASSESSMENT Of PROPOSED PIONEER MEADOWS SUBDIVISION
CONTAINING APPLEGATE TRAIL RESOURCES

V. FEDERAL REGISTER DETERMINATIONS

A. National Register Evaluation Criteria

1. Evaluation Criteria1

The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association relate to several criteria for evaluation and criteria considerations (Appendix B)

There are four National Register evaluation criteria.2

            "A. That are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or"

            "B. That are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or"

            "C. That embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a              master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may              lack individual distinction; or"

            "D. That have yielded or may be likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history."

2. Category of Historic Places3

The National Register includes significant properties classified as buildings, sites, districts, structures, or objects. It is normally not used to list intangible values. It is oriented to recognizing physically concrete properties that are relatively fixed in location.

If a structure has lost its historic configuration or pattern or organization through deterioration or demolition, it is usually considered a "ruin" and is categorized as a site.

            The buildings are gone, but the site has not deteriorated.

A site is the location of a significant event, a prehistoric or historic occupation or activity, or a building or structure, whether standing, ruined, or vanished, where the location itself possesses historic, cultural, or archeological value regardless of the value of any existing structure. A site can possess associative significance or information potential or both, and can be significant under any or all of the four criteria. A site need not be marked by physical remains if it is the location of a prehistoric or historic event or pattern of events and if no buildings, structures, or objects marked it at the time of the events. However, when the location of a prehistoric or historic event cannot be conclusively determined because no other cultural materials were present or survive, documentation must be carefully evaluated to determine whether the traditionally recognized or identified site is accurate.

            The historic Applegate Trail was the location of a significant historic activity.

A district possesses a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, buildings, structures, or objects united historically or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district derives its importance from being a unified entity, even though it is often composed of a wide variety of resources. The identity of a district results from the interrelationship of its resources, which can convey a visual sense of the overall historic environment or be an arrangement of historically or functionally related properties.

3. National Register of Historic Places Criteria

a) How To Evaluate A Property Within Its Historic Context4

To qualify for the National Register, a property must be significant; that is, it must represent a significant part of the history, architecture, archeology, engineering, or culture of an area, and it must have the characteristics that make it a good representative of properties association with that aspect of the past.

The significance of a historic property can be judged and explained only when it is evaluated within its historic context. Historic contexts are those patterns or trends in history by which a specific occurrence, property, or site is understood and its meaning (and ultimately its significance) within history or prehistory is made clear.

The concept of historic context is not a new one; it has been fundamental to the study of history since the 18th century and, arguably, earlier then that. Its core premise is that resources, properties, or happenings in history do not occur in a vacuum, but rather are part of larger trends or patterns.

In order to decide whether a property is significant within its historic context, the following five things must be determined:

1. The facet of prehistory or history of the local area, State, or the nation that the property represents.
2. Whether the facet of prehistory or history is significant.
3. Whether it is a type of property that has relevance and importance in illustrating the historic context.
4. How the property illustrates that history; and finally
5. Whether the property possesses the physical features necessary to convey the aspect of prehistory or history with which it is associated.

Historic contexts are historical patterns that can be identified through consideration of the history of the surrounding area. Historic contexts may have already been defined in your area by the State historic preservation office, Federal agencies, or local governments. In accordance with the National Register Criteria, the historic context may relate to one of the following (Appendix B).

. An event, a series of events or activities, or patterns of an area’s development (Criterion A).
. Association with the life of an important person (Criterion B).
. A building form, architectural style, engineering technique, or artistic values, based on a stage of physical development, or the use of material or method of construction that shaped the historic identify of an area (Criterion C).
. A research topic (Criterion D).

Properties listed in the National Register must possess significance when evaluated in the perspective of their historic context. Once the historic context is established and the property type is determined, it is not necessary to evaluate the property in question against other properties if:

. It is the sole example of a property type that is important in illustrating the historic context, or
. It clearly possesses the defined characteristics required to strongly represent the context.

Historic contexts are found at a variety of geographical levels or scales. The geographic scale selected may related to a pattern of historical development, a political division, or a cultural area. Regardless of the scale, the historic context establishes the framework from which decisions about the significance of related properties can be made.

A local historic context represents an aspect of the history of a town, city, county, cultural area, or region, or any portions thereof. It is defined by the importance of the property, not necessarily the physical location of the property. For example, if a property is of a type found throughout a State, or its boundaries extend over two States, but its importance relates only to a particular county, the property would be considered of local significance.

b) How To Identify The Type Of Significance Of A Property5

When evaluated within its historic context, a property must be shown to be significant for one or more of the four Criteria of Evaluation - A, B, C, or D. The Criteria describe how properties are significant for their association with important events or persons, for their importance in design or construction, or for their information potential.

Within the scope of the historic context, the National Register Criteria define the kind of significance that the properties represent.

National Register Criteria For Evaluation. The National Register Criteria recognize different types of values embodies in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects. These values fall into the following categories:

. Associative Value (Criteria A and B): Properties significant for their association or linkage to events (Criterion A) or persons (Criterion B) important in the past.
. Design or Construction Value (Criterion C): Properties significant as representatives of the manmade expression of culture or technology.
. Information Value (Criterion D): Properties significant for their ability to yield important information about prehistory or history.

c) Criteria A - D

When evaluated within its historic context, a property must be shown to be significant for one or more of the four Criteria for Evaluation - A, B, C, or D. The criteria describe how properties are significant for their association with important events or persons, for their importance in design or construction, or for their information potential.

(1) Criterion A: Event6

To be considered for listing under Criterion A, a property must be associated with one or more events important in the defined historic context. Criterion A recognizes properties associated with single events, such as the founding of a town, or with a pattern of events, repeated activities, or historic trends, such as the gradual rise of a port city’s prominence in trade and commerce. The event or trends, however, must clearly be important within the associated context: settlement, in the case of the town, or development of a maritime economy, in the case of the port city. Moreover, the property must have an important association with the event or historic trends, and it must retain historic integrity.

Several steps are involved in determining whether a property is significant for its associative values.

. Determine the nature and origin of the property.
. Identify the historic context with which it is associated, and
. Evaluate the property’s history to determine whether it is associated with the historic context in any important way.

A property can be associated with either (or both) of two types of events:

. A specific event marking an important moment in American prehistory or history, and
. A pattern of events or a historic trend that made a significant contribution to the development of a community, a state, or the nation.

The property you are evaluating must be documented, through accepted means of historical or archeological research (including oral history), to have existed at the time of the event or pattern of events and to have been associated with those events. A property is not eligible if its associations are speculative. For archeological sites, well reasoned inferences drawn from data recovered at the site can be used to establish the association between the site and the events.

Mere association with historic events or trends is not enough, in and of itself, to qualify under Criterion A: the property’s specific association must be considered important as well. For example, a building historically in commercial use must be shown to have been significant in commercial history.

(2) Criterion B: Person7

Criterion B applies to properties associated with individuals whose specific contributions to history can be identified and documented.

(3) Criterion C: Design/Construction8

Properties may be eligible for the National Register if they embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction.

This criterion applies to properties significant for their physical design or construction, including such elements as architecture, landscape architecture, engineering, and artwork. To be eligible under Criterion C, a property must meet at least one of the following requirements:

. Embody distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction.
This requirement, that properties "embody distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction." refers to the way in which a property was conceived, designed, or fabricated by a people or culture in past periods of history.
. Represent the work of a master.
. Posses high artistic value.
. Represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction.

This is the portion of Criterion C under which most properties are eligible, for it encompasses all architectural styles and construction practices. To be eligible under this portion of the Criterion, a property must clearly illustrate, through "distinctive characteristics," the following:

. The pattern of features common to a particular class of resources,
. The individuality or variation of features that occur within the class,
. The evolution of that class, or
. The transition between classes of resources.

"Distinctive characteristics" are the physical features or traits that commonly recur in individual types, periods, or methods of construction. To be eligible, a property must clearly contain enough of those characteristics to be considered a true representative of a particular type, period, or method of construction.

Characteristics can be expressed in terms such as form, proportion, structure, plan, style, or materials. They can be general, referring to ideas of design and construction such as basic plan or form, or they can be specific, referring to precise ways of combining particular kinds of materials.

"Type, period, or method of construction," refers to the way certain properties are related to one another by cultural tradition or function, by dates of construction or style, or by choice or availability of material and technology.

A structure is eligible as a specimen of its type or period of construction if it is an important example (within its context) of building practices of a particular time in history. For properties that represent the variation, evolution, or transition of construction types, it must be demonstrated that the variation, etc., was an important phase of the architectural development of the area or community in that it had an impact as evidenced by later buildings. A property is not eligible, however, simply because it has been identified as the only such property ever fabricated; it must be demonstrated to be significant as well.

(4) Criterion D: Information Potential9

Certain important research questions about human history can only be answered by the actual physical material of cultural resources. Criterion D encompasses the properties that have the potential to answer, in whole or in part, those types of research questions. The most common type of property nominated under this Criterion is the archeological site (or a district comprised of archeological sites).

d) How To Apply The Criteria Considerations10

Certain kinds of properties are not usually considered for listing in the National Register: religious properties, moved properties, birthplaces and graves, cemeteries, reconstructed properties, commemorative properties, and properties achieving significant within the last 50 years. These properties can be eligible for listing, however, if they meet special requirements, called Criteria Considerations, in addition to meeting the regular requirements (that is, being eligible under one or more of the four criteria and possessing integrity).

1. USDI, National Park Service. Revised for Internet 1995. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. National Register Bulletin. National Register of Historic Places. U.S. Government Printing Office: 2005–717-788. Washington, DC.
2. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Part II. The National Register Criteria For Evaluation.
3. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Part IV. How To Define Categories Of Historic Properties.
4. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Part V. How To Evaluate A Property Within Its Historic Context.
5. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Part VI. How To Identify The Type Of Significance Of A Property.
6. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Part VI. Criterion A: Event.
7. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Part VI. Criterion B: Person.
8. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Part VI. Criterion C: Design/ Construction.
9. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Part VI. Criterion D: Information Potential.
10. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Part VII. How To Apply The Criteria Considerations.

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2012 Hugo Neighborhood Association & Historical Society